31.6.13 Unmet Need of Contraception

Original Article


Unmet Need of Contraception

Unmet Need of Contraception

Abdul Rahman1, Muhammad Akram Saeed1 and Nasreen Hamid2


Objective: This study was disbursed to spot the unmet need of contraceptive method and to assess the factors influencing it in Sakrand city, Sindh.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Study Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Public Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Community Medicine and Obstet & Gynae Department, Sialkot Medical College Sialkot from April 1st, 2018 to 30th April, 2018.

Materials and Methods: 194 respondents were approached for interviewing after verbal consent. These respondents were designated through Convenience Sampling. The sample size involves ninety-seven for every (Married Men & Women), was required for the present study. A structured form was accustomed to gather data from 194 married couples. Data was entered and analyzed exploitation SPSS-20.

Results38.14% of men (37 out of 97) were found to own associate unmet need for contraceptive method, while 42.26% of female (41 out of 97) were found to own associate unmet need for contraceptive method. On the premise of findings of study, it had been found that married couples in city Sakrand had higher unmet need for contraceptive method.

Conclusion: The study found married men of city Sakrand were facing totally different barriers within the seizing of contraceptive method i.e. at community level e.g. lack of education and awareness, excessive work, family pressure.

Key Words: Contraceptive Method, Contraceptive Prevalence Rate, Married Couples

Citation of article: Rahman A, Saeed MA, Hamid N. Unmet Need of Contraception. Med Forum 2020;31(6):56-59.




The recent knowledge on unmet need reveals that the services associated programs fail to fulfill the demand and leave an unmet need high1. As family size wants cut back, unmet need tends to develop till service facility catches up with the demand for fewer births and longer birth intervals. After that additional gains in commission convenience consecu- tively decrease unmet need2. According to World Health Organization, encouragement of contraceptive method and enabling girls to avoid unwanted pregnan-cies is keyWorld Health Organization’s care in humanizing motherly health in achieving the Millennium Development Goal3. 

Birth control and generative health programs have contributed seriously to fertility decline within the developing contries4



1. Department of Community Medicine / Obstet & Gynae, Sialkot Medical College Sialkot.



Correspondence: Dr. Abdul Rahman, Associate Professor of Community Medicine, Sialkot Medical College Sialkot.

Contact No: 0322-4858415

Email: pakistanur@gmail.com



Received:    January, 2020

Accepted:    February, 2020

Printed:        June, 2020




The use of in contraceptive method contributes to dropping the load of generative health problem by declining mortality and morbidity of reserve  pregnancies. Ever-increasing recent family planning use needs the population’s intensive comprehensive interventions and mutual demand of serious info. At the similar time importance has been set on the interventions aiming at countering negative perceptions of recent contraceptive ways5.The popula-tion policy of Pakistan envisages achieving population stabilization in 2020 by declining the annual rate of growth from one.9% to 1.3% and TFR at 2.1. This mark needs exhausting diligence to create the percep-tion of little family a usual surroundings through a keenly planned statement and education promotion. On immediate determinants of fertility largely infant feeding and prolonging birth area won't create conflict from the community as a result of these ideas area unit in accordance with Moslem injunctions and data6. The vital importance of generative rights to the contradiction of population policies within the twenty first century argued that generative rights prolong to be beneath risk, even some fifteen years once the milestone ICPD in Cairo declared the importance of a satisfying and sex activity life, the potential to own youngsters and therefore the right to decide on on the temporal orderrange and spacing. This is often contrasted with the unmet want for birth control within the poorest countries. It  entails  health  suppliers to promoter for generative rights, affirming that the autonomy of girls to arrange their fertility is that the origin for different necessary decisions7.

The health edges of contraceptive method area unit as: around two hundred,000 maternal morbidities take up to 0.5 the full may be prevented through effective birth control and literature is clear that eleven girls die on a daily basis from gestation and birth complications  thus most of those deaths can even be prevented by  contraceptive methodCorrect birth spacing reduces by 0.5 the chance of death for newborns and infants. Over seven,800 baby deaths may be prevented yearly through contraceptive method. Poor girls and infants carry the foremost risk of death and  incapacity from lack of access to generative health services, thus contraceptive method may be a cost-efficient public health live. Unmet need as a thought  dates to the Sixtiesonce researchers 1st incontestable a spot within the developing world between women’s fertility preferences and their use of contraceptive method. New views on men have emerged from  associate evolution in puzzling over generative health with ICPD programme of action birth down a  holistic conception of generative health8.

An Indian study disclosed that unmet  want  for  contraceptive method was St Martin's Day for married men and seventeen.5% for married girls. The  distinction was seen each in unmet want for spacing (M-3.5% vs. F-6%) similarly as limiting family size (M-7.5% vs. W-11.5%). Overall, unmet  want  for  contraceptive method was considerably higher for married girls compared to married men9.

Unmet need for contraceptive method is especially high in Sub-Saharan Africawherever very little progress has been createdInside each region, however, some countries and sub regions stand out as clear targets for helpThough African nationSouth Africa and plenty of their immediate neighbors have unmet  want  levels below 2 hundredth, Ethiopia, other countries on the east and west coasts of continent have rates around  thirty fifthDifferent regions, too, have their  hassle  spots: The rates for Asian nation (30%) and Haiti (40%), as an examplearea unit sixfold rock bottom  measured rates in their region; Vietnam (5%) and South American nation (6%) severally associate  calculable  113.6 million girls within the developing world have  associate unmet want for contraceptive method one zero five.2 million married girls (of whom fifty five.4 million would like to area births and four9.8 million  would like to limit additional childbearing) 4 million  unwedded girlsAdditionallyassociate calculable 9 million girls in different regions have associate unmet need: four.6 million in Russia, 3.6 million in  Japanese Europe. Thus, a complete of 122.7 million  girls in developing countries and therefore the former Soviet republics have  associate  unmet  need  for  contraceptive method. Asia contains sixty one million married girls with unmet want, or fifty eight of the full for the developing world, reflective the inclusion of many countries with terribly giant populations (India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh). Sub-Saharan Africa contains twenty four million (22% of the total),  largely owing to the massive populations of African nation, Ethiopia, South Africa and therefore the  Democratic Republic of the Congo. Geographic area contributes eleven million married girls with unmet want (11%), nearly 1/2 whom board Mexico and Brazil. North Africa and therefore the  Mideast  account for under concerning eight million (8%), and therefore the Central Asian republics, with their smaller populations, have a complete of one.1 million (1%).The proportion of presently married girls with unmet  want  in varied regions of the developing world in 2000 ranges from St Martin's Day to pure goldsub-Saharan Africa's figure of pure gold  is  concerning  0.5 once more the common for the developing world overall (17%); different regional figures vary from St Martin's Day within the Central Asian republics to 14 July in geographic area and Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire in North Africa and therefore the  Mideast  and in Asia10. At an equivalent  time,  it's  evident that reducing unmet have to be compelled to zero or negligible levels is feasible and nearly assured wherever contraceptive prevalence is high, e.g., Vietnam with five-hitter and country with 11th of September. This indicator is one by that MDG 5b’s progress is being monitored, and nil tolerance for unmet contraceptive want deserves thought for adoption by all countries absolutely committed to rising the human condition11.
The unmet want live offers associate estimate of the proportion of girls UN agency  may  probably  use  contraceptive methodUN agency area unit  exploitation  contraceptives area unit aforementioned to own met want for birth controlThe full demand for birth control is formed of the proportion of married girls with unmet want and married girls with met want for birth control12.


A Cross sectional study was conducted from April 1st, 2018 to 30th April, 2018 at the Department of Public Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Community Medicine and Obstet & Gynae Department, Sialkot Medical College Sialkot. This study was conducted to spot the unmet need of contraceptive method and to assess the factors influencing it in married couples of Sakrand city, Sindh. The sample size involves ninety seven for every (Married Men & Women), was required for the present study. A complete of 194 respondents were approached for interviewing after verbal consent & these respondents were  designated through Convenience Sampling with inclusion criteria as Married Men & Women; (15 to forty nine for married  girls  &  fifteen  to  seventy  years). Collected data was entered and  analyzed  exploitation SPSS-20.


Unmet Need of Contraception: 38.14% of men (37 out of 97) were found to have an unmet need for contraception, while 42.26% of women (41 out of 97) were found to have an unmet need for contraception.

Figure No.1: Unmet Need among married men and women.

Figure No.2: Reason of Unmet need among women.

Figure No.3: Unmet need for contraception.


In the current study; unmet want for contraceptive method was found to be higher for married  girls  compared to men (42.26% & 38.14% respectively) among study respondents. International & regional literature shows regional figures of total Unmet need as: 1990-2009 West and Central Africa twenty five.5, East  and Southern Africa twenty six.5, Middle  East / North  Africa thirteen.5, Eastern Europe eleven.3, South  Asia  twenty one.0, East Asia/Pacific sixteen.6, Latin  America  and  Caribbean seventeen.425.

Although African nationSouth Africa and plenty of their immediate neighbors have unmet want levels below 2 hundredth, Ethiopia, African nation and other countries on the east and west coasts of continent have rates around thirty fifthdifferent regions, too, have their hassle spots: The rates for Asian nation (30%) and Haiti (40%), as an examplearea unit sixfold rock bottom measured rates in their region Vietnam (5%) and South American nation (6%), respectively12.

In line with a supply that identifies that the unmet  need  for contraceptive method remains persistently high in many countries wherever one fifth or a lot of married reproductive-aged non-contracepting  girls  report desirous to area or limit births e.g.,  Myanmar  (20%), Laos (40%), Asian nation (25%) and Asian nation (24%). These 5 countries alone account for nearly twenty million girls with unmet want and an other  eight with accessible knowledge (e.g., Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Bangladesh, India, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia) contribute a further fifty eight.3 million girls.
Unmet need varies wide similarlywherever knowledge area unit accessible. Pakistan, Laos and therefore the Maldives register a number of the best levels of unmet  want  (33%, 40%, and thirty seventh  respectively) within the region and area unit substantial for Asian nation (24%), Asian nation (25%),  Myanmar  (20%), the Philippines (17%), PDR Korea (16%) and Mongolia (14%). These levels occur among married men & girlswherever the ladies  isn't  contracepting  however wishes to area or limit future births and imply continuing vulnerability to the chance  of  haphazard  gestation till the necessity is met. Globally this figure is calculable to be 215 million girls, with a predominant share being within the Asia region, and therefore the incidence of uncaused pregnancies annually is calculable at seventy five million. At an equivalent time, it's evident that reducing unmet have to be compelled to zero or negligible levels is feasible and nearly assured wherever contraceptive prevalence is high, e.g., Vietnam with five-hitter  and  country  with  11th of September. This indicator is one by that MDG 5b’s progress is being monitored, and nil tolerance for unmet contraceptive want deserves thought for adoption by all countries absolutely committed to rising the human condition11

In my study reasons known for higher rates of unmet want in Sakrand city were e.g. lack of education, excessive domestic work and resistance from the female parent, resistance from husband, relative-in-law and elders. 

Regarding reasons of unmet wants of contraceptive method there's coherence thus of these barriers ought to be self-addressed at the same time and fruitfull efforts created to cut back unmet have to be compelled to zero or negligible levels as literature is clear Vietnam.
Similar results were rumored in an exceedingly study from urban centertwenty ninth of men compared to thirty ninth of girls rumored having unmet  need  for contraceptive method. None of the previous studies have looked between married men and married girls on the unmet want for contraception12

The findings of our study have highlighted the numerous distinction in married men and married girls; unmet want of contraceptive method and reinforce the actual fact that responses of married girls alone might not be enough; this is often why my study has target each genders to assess the unmet  need  of  contraceptive method in terms of frequency  similarly as totally different reasons one by one among married men and married women as serious issue.


The study found married men and ladies of  city  Sakrand were facing totally different barriers within the  seizing  of  contraceptive methodLargely the barriers  were at community level like lack of education and awareness, excessive work, resistance from family. Religious barriers were the foremost common among all.

Sakrand city includes a high unmet want  of  contraceptive method and low contraceptive prevalence rate. Though there's smart data relating to family and  trendy ways of contraceptive method but  there's  low utilization of recent contraceptive ways.

Author’s Contribution:

Concept & Design of Study:

Abdul Rahman


Muhammad Akram Saeed

Data Analysis:

Nasreen Hamid

Revisiting Critically:

Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Akram Saeed

Final Approval of version:

Abdul Rahman

Conflict of Interest: The study has no conflict of interest to declare by any author.


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