31.9.13 Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Lipid Profile and Throat in Male Population Smoker of Mirpur AJK

Original Article

 

Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Lipid Profile and Throat

Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Lipid Profile and Throat in Male Population Smoker of Mirpur AJK

Muhammad Shoaib1, Faisal Bashir2, Abdul Waheed Khan4 and Asnad3

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study to evaluate   the effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile and throat in male population smoker of Mirpur AJK.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Community Medicine, Biochemistry and ENT of Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College Mirpur AJK from January 2018 to September 2019.

Materials and Methods: Only adult male smokers and non- smokers were selected for the study.  Those smokers who were reported in other disease such as hepatic diseases, diabetes and hypertension were excluded. We take for study 200 chronic smoker and 100 non –smoker. This study was conducted in the department community medicine, Biochemistry Department and ENT of Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College Mirpur AJk.  We take blood samples from both groups chronic smoker and non-smoker and analyzed the samples on Micro lab 300 for serum lipid profile. (Cholestol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and Triglyceride). For the study we use kits made of Merck Pvt. We also done other biochemistry test and hematological test and throat were clinically investigated and observation was recorded. Smoking history and medical history are obtained from both groups such as smoker and non-smoker.

Results: The result indicate that all the lipid profile (LDL, Triglyceride) is higher except HDL in smoker with as compare to  non-smoker. Total cholesterol (253.5 ± 11.8) mg\dl, LDL (126.9 ± 22.5) mg\dl,  and Triglyceride (198.2 ± 31.5) mg\dl, in smoker are higher as compare to non-smoker. While HDL (39.77± 8.5) mg\dl, is decreased in smoker as compare to non-smoker.

Conclusion: It is concluding that tobacco smoking alter the lipid profile and throat flora of the chronic smoker. Quitting of smoking is essential for the reduction, the risk of CHD and atherosclerosis among the Mirpur, AJK smoker.

Key Words: smoking, lipid profile, throat

Citation of article: Shoaib M, Bashir F, Khan AW, Asnad. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Lipid Profile and Throat in Male Population Smoker of Mirpur AJK. Med Forum 2020;31(9):54-58.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Cigarette smoking is caused atherosclerosis and Chronic Heart Diseases (CHD).1,2Tobacco smoke produce dangerous and toxic effect on throat, lipid profile and health .3 Many scientist reported that   smoking effect  biochemical process in the body  such as changes in the lipid profile , decreased nitric oxide and increased  LDL-C.6-8

 

 

1. Department of Community Medicine / ENT2 / Biochemistry3, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College, Mirpur, AJK.

4. Department of Community Medicine, Poonch Medical College, Rawalakot, AJK

 

 

Correspondence: Dr. Asnad, Associate Professor of Biochemistry, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College, Mirpur, AJK.

Contact No: 0332-3698204

Email: drasnadkhan@gmail.com

 

 

Received:    May, 2020

Accepted:    July, 2020

Printed:        September, 2020

 

 

Smoking  produce  the endothelial dysfunction which effect the body function.9 Smoking also developed insulin resistance in the body which effect the body glucose level.10Fibrinolysis process is effect in body with time being smoking .11Hematology of the body is also change with smoking such as platelet dysfunction,12.13

  The viscosity of the blood is high with smoking and chances of inflammation is increased in in smoker.14,15athero-thrombotic diseases is developed in chronic smoker.16-18The lipolysis process is increased in   daily smoker which increase the   free fatty acid .19 Arterial wall inflammation disorder is produced in chronic smoker.20,21Atherogenic factors are enhanced in chronic smoking such as Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (VLDL-C) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (VLDL-C).22 Previous scientist data showed that Tabaco smoking increased the level of VLDL, cholesterol, LDL–C and triglyceride.23-25 Some studies showed conflict to each other with lipid profile.28, 29 cigarettes smoked is directly related to CVD development.32,33

The present study objective to evaluate the effects of smoking on lipid profile and throat among Mirpur AJK smokers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Only adult male smokers and non- smokers were selected for the study.  Those smokers who were reported in other disease such as hepatic diseases, diabetes and hypertension were excluded. We take for study 200 chronic smoker and 100 non –smoker. This study was conducted in the department community medicine, Biochemistry Department and ENT of  Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College  Mirpur AJK.  We take blood samples from both groups chronic smoker and non-smoker and analyzed the samples on Micro lab 300 for serum lipid profile. (Cholestol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and  Triglyceride). For the study we use kits made of Merck Pvt. We also done other biochemistry test and hematological test and throat were clinically investigated and observation was recorded.

Smoking history and medical history are obtained from both groups such as smoker and non-smoker 

For data analysis,  the results were analyzed using the SPSS, version 20. Mean and standard deviation between groups were determined. For comparison, T-test was used for both group’s smoker and non-smoker.

RESULTS

The result indicates that all the lipid profile (LDL, Triglyceride) is higher except HDL in smoker with as compare to non-smoker.

Table No.1:  Participant characteristics

 

Smoker    (n=200)

Non- Smoker (n=100)

Age (years)

35.54 ± 5.58

35.55 ± 4.58

Education

Basic

Secondary

University

B-51%, S-29% , U-20%

B-50% , S- 32%  U-18%

Body weight (Kg)

75.1 + 11.4

75.4 + 11.5

B: Basic , S: Secondary ,  U:University

Table 2:   Lipid profile of   Chronic Smoker   and non-smoker

Chronic Smoker    (n=200)

non-smoker (n=100) 

Fasting Blood Glucose(mg/dl)

 

97.8 ± 4.3

99.4 ± 4.6

Total Cholesterol (mg/dl)

 

253.5 ± 11.8

191.6 ± 31.5

LDL  (mg\dl)

 

126.9 ±  22.5

113.5± 17.3

HDL  (mg\dl)

 

39.77± 8.5

58.3 ± 9.1

Triglycerides (mg\dl)

 

198.2 ± 31.5

132.3 ± 31.2

Total cholesterol (253.5 ± 11.8) mg\dl, LDL (126.9 ± 22.5) mg\dl, and Triglyceride (198.2 ± 31.5) mg\dl, in smoker are higher as compare to non-smoker. While HDL (39.77± 8.5) mg\dl, is decreased in smoker   as compare to non-smoker. Minor irritation is caused by smoking on throat was observed in chronic smoker.

Table No.3: The risk of morbidity level among smokers and non-smokers

Lipid profile

 

Non-smokers

   N (%)

Smokers

   N (%)

Total cholesterol mmol/l

 

 

Normal value

73.3%

58.9%

Moderate morbidity risk

 26.0%

20.9%

High morbidity risk

2.9%

20.9%)

Table No.4: Percentage irritations in throat among smokers and non-smokers

 

Non-smokers

Smokers  

Irritation %

10-15%

80-85%

DISCUSSION

Critical enzymes of lipid transport is changed with smoking, hepatic lipase activity is changed, and cholesterol ester transfer protein activity is changed.35  In smokers compared to non smokers, level of HDL-C in serum is decreased.36 In the another  study, VLDL, triglyceride and LDL–C are increased in chronic smoker.37

Only adult male smoker and non- smoker was selected for the study.  those   smoker who are reported in other disease such as hepatic diseases, diabetes and hypertension were excluded. We take for study 200 chronic smoker and 100 non –smoker. This study was conducted in the department community medicine, Biochemistry Department and ENT of Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College Mirpur AJk.  We take blood samples from both groups chronic smoker and non-smoker and analyzed the samples on  Microlab 300  for serum lipid profile.( Cholestol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and  Triglyceride). For the study we use kits made of Merck Pvt. We also done other biochemistry test and hematological test  and throat was clinically  investigated  and observation was recorded .

 Smoking history and medical history are obtained from both groups such as smoker and non-smoker The result indicate that all the lipid profile (LDL, Triglyceride) is higher except HDL in smoker with as compare to  non-smoker. Total cholesterol (253.5 ± 11.8) mg\dl, LDL (126.9 ± 22.5) mg\dl,   and Triglyceride (198.2 ± 31.5) mg\dl, in smoker are higher as compare to non-smoker. While HDL (39.77± 8.5) mg\dl, is decreased in smoker    as compare to non-smoker.   Some  studies showed  the lipid profile  are same or normal in smoker but in chronic smoker the value changed 38,39 Strong predictor(  non HDL fraction) for risk of CHD has increased in  chronic smoker .40,42  In the study of Afroz et al.,  oxidative modification of LDLC  is increased in chronic smoker  which is reported .43  Levels of oxidized LDL-C is increased in smoker which is the risk of atherosclerosis and CHD.44

        The viscosity of the blood is high with smoking and chances of inflammation are increased in in smoker. Athero-thrombotic diseases is developed in chronic smoker. The lipolysis process is increased in   daily smoker which increase the   free fatty acid. Arterial wall inflammation disorder is produced in chronic smoker. Atherogenic factors are enhanced in chronic smoking such as Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (VLDL-C) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (VLDL-C). Previous scientist data showed that Tabaco smoking increased the level of VLDL, cholesterol, LDL–C and triglyceride. Some studies showed conflict to each other with lipid profile .cigarettes smoked is directly related to CVD development In one of study in rabbit, cigarette smoke extract when inject, it caused oxidative modification of LDL which atherosclerosis.45 

So it is conclude that tobacco smoking alter the lipid profile and throat flora of the chronic smoker.

CONCLUSION

So it is conclude that tobacco smoking alter the lipid profile and throat flora of the chronic smoker. Quitting of smoking is essential for the reduction, the risk of CHD and atherosclerosis among the Mirpur , AJK smoker.

Author’s Contribution:

Concept & Design of Study:

Muhammad Shoaib

Drafting:

Faisal Bashir

Data Analysis:

Abdul Waheed Khan, Asnad

Revisiting Critically:

Muhammad Shoaib, Faisal Bashir

Final Approval of version:

Muhammad Shoaib

Conflict of Interest: The study has no conflict of interest to declare by any author.

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