31.9.39 Trend of Sexual Offences in Pakistan

Original Article

 

Trend of Sexual Offences

Trend of Sexual Offences in Pakistan

M Ijaz1, M Asif2, Azhar Masud Bhatti, Tanveer Hussain4 and Abdul Hamid2

ABSTRACT

Objective: To Study Trend of Sexual Offences in Pakistan.

Study Design: Retrospective Study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Departments of Forensic Medicine, FMC, Abbatabad, SMC, Sialkot, RMDC, Lahore and FJMU, Lahore from Feb 2018 to Jan 2020.

Materials and Methods: Two Hundred and sixty-three Victims of sexual offences were included in this study. Th e performa was designed to record demographic data. Injuries inflicted during sexual offence, Swab positive and negative were recorded. The history & examination was also recorded in the performa. The permission of Ethical Committee was also considered before collecting the data and get publish Medical Journal. The written informed consent was also taken before collecting the data. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 10.

Results: The incidence of sexual offences was maximum in age group 11-15years 7(21.21%) and minimum in age group 51-70years 1(3.03%) in male and in female incidence was maximum in age group 26-30years 37(16.15%) and minimum in age group 71 & above years 09(3.93%). The incidence of sexual offences was maximum in Lower class o population 135(51.33%) and minimum in high gentry 27(10.26%). The incidence of sexual offences was maximum in rural population 201(74.42%) as compared to urban population 62(23.57%) as most of the people live in rural area. There was 173(65.77%) victims who had swab positive and 90(34.22%) swab negative. There was maximum incidence of injuries of genital area & genital tract 76(28.89%) and minimum incidence of injuries chest & abdomen 27(10.26%).

Conclusion: Women reaching the at risk age should be educated regarding the signal warning of danger for such a prevalence and how best to respond to such a situation. Survivors and the closely associated people should be educated to rep on such an incident immediately and get the victim examined so that proper evidence can take place and evidence collected. Facilities for seminal fluid grouping and Deoxy Ribo Nuclic Acid analysis should be developed to help in identifying the illegal. Finally,

Key Words: Trend, Sexual Offences, Demographic data, Informed consent, Ethical Committee & Pakistan

Citation of article: Ijaz M, Asif M, Bhatti AM, Hussain T, Hamid A. Trend of Sexual Offences in Pakistan. Med Forum 2020;31(9):169-172.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Grown-up rape is a significant general wellbeing worry all through the globe1 and is currently considered as a circumstance requiring crisis clinical therapy2. In the same way as other different nations of the world, grown-up sexual maltreatment is fundamentally confined inside the legitimate framework in Pakistan. The legal doctor is principally associated with the evidence of the discoveries and the assortment
of proof.3  

 

 

1. Department of Forensic Medicine, FMC, Abbottabad.

2. Department of Forensic Medicine, SMC, Sialkot.

3. Department of Forensic Medicine, RMDC, Lahore.

4. Department of Forensic Medicine, FJMU, Lahore.

 

 

Correspondence: Dr. M Ijaz Assistant Professor of Forensic Medicine Frontier Medical College, Abbottabad.

Contact No: 0300-5619525

Email: hrd@smc.com

 

 

Received:    May, 2020

Accepted:    July, 2020

Printed:        September, 2020

 

 

 

 

 

 

This division o1 the clinical reaction to assault into a legitimate and clinical part is an impediment to an ideal assistance for survivers.3 The clinical reaction to rape ought to incorporate treatment of the wounds and follow up advising notwithstanding the documentation and assortment of proof. In numerous nations, uncommon component has been set up which oblige all parts o1 the survivor o1 related with sex maltreatment 1rom announcing and assessment to therapy and development.

In United States of America, six lakhs eighty three thousand women are assaulted every year.4 This is disregarding the way that rape is the least announced o1 the brutal violations with just sixteen to thirty nine percent being accounted for to the police.5,6

Those among twelve to twenty-four years old are generally inclined to related with sex brutality in United States of America.6 However no age is resistant, with cases being accounted for in the age scopes of three months to eighty-six years in Lisbon, Portugal.7

The likelihood of evidence of wounds and assortment of positive proof abatements as the time stretch among the ambush and clinical assessment increases.8 disregarding this between twenty to thirty-eight point five percent of the casualties announced following twenty-four hours o1 the occasion and countless casualties revealed over seventy-two hours after the attack at the National Institute of Legal Medicine in Portugal.7

The Culprit o1 the ambush was typically somebody known to the casualty in concentrates in Nairobi, Denmark and Canada9-11 and the quantity o1 attackers was more than one out of countless cases in Ohio, USA.12

Most of legal proof for a situation of rape is seen on the garments and sheet.8 the body of the casualty may have bodily discoveries characteristic of power or savagery not with manding nearby wound or wound to the private parts zone. These wounds might be characteristic o1 whether the demonstration was involving consent or was against assent, something that is probably going to have wide legitimate meanings. The wounds can be featured by the utilization o1 toluidine blue to the influenced parts.13.

The nearness of seminal fluid in the swabs taken 1rom the body o1 the casually is a significant authenticating proof. This increases further significance of seminal fluid gathering or Deoxy Ribo Nuclic Acid composing of the original stains should be possible. The evidence can be additionally TortiTied by detachment of women Deoxy Ribo Nuclic Acid (having a place with the person in question) from penile swabs taken from the suspected attacker.14

This examination was directed to know the components o1 this significant general wellbeing concern. This would help us in creating techniques to forestall such rates by teaching women in the powerless gathering.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was conducted at the Departments of Forensic Medicine, FMC, Abbatabad, SMC, Sialkot, RMDC, Lahore and FJMU, Lahore. Two Hundred and sixty-three victims of sexual offences were included in this study. The Performa was designed to record demographic data, Injuries inflicted during sexual offence, Swab positive and negative were recorded. The history & examination was also recorded in the perform. The permission of Ethical Committee was also considered before collecting the data and get publish Medical Journal. The written informed consent was also taken before collecting the data. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 10.

RESULTS

The incidence of sexual offences was maximum in age group 11-15years 7(21.21%) and minimum in age group 51-70years 1(3.03%) in male and in female incidence was maximum in age group 26-30years 37(16.15%) and minimum in age group 71 & above years 09(3.93%) as shown in table 1.

Table No 1: Age and gender distribution

Serial

No

|

Age (years)

Male

Female

1

|

5—10

515.15%

15

6.55%)

2

|

11—15

7

21.21%

 

25

10.91%

 

3

|

16—20

3

9.09%

27

11.79%

 

4

|

21—25

4

12.12%

 

30

13.10%

 

5

|

26—30

5

15.15%

 

37

16.15%

 

6

|

31—40

3

9.09%

 

34

14.84%

 

7

|

41—50

2

6.06%

 

25

10.91%

 

8

|

51—60

1

3.03%

 

14

6.11%

 

9

|

61—70

1

3.03%

 

13

5.67%

 

10

|

71 & Above

2

6.06%

 

09

3.93%

 

Total

33 (100%)

229 (100%)

The incidence of sexual offences was maximum in Lower class of population 135(51.33%) and minimum in high gentry 27(10.26%) as shown in table 2.

Table No. 2: Socio economic status distribution

Serial No.

Socio economic status

No of Victims (%)

1

Low

135

51 .33%

 

2

Middle

101

38.40%

 

3

High

27 (10.26%)

Total

 

263 (100%)

The incidence of sexual offences as maximum in rural population 201(74.42%) as compare to urban population 62(23.57%) as most of the people live in rural area as shown in table 3.

Table No. 3: Area distribution

Serial No

Area

No of Victims

1

Rural

201 (74.42%)

2

Urban

62 (23.57%)

Total

 

263 (100%)

There was173(65.77%) victims who had swab positive and 90(34.22%) swab negative as shown in table 4.

Table No. 4: Swab positive or negative distribution

Serial No

Swab

No of Victims

1

Positive

173 (65.77%)

2

Negative

90 (34.22%)

Total

 

263 (100%)

Table No 5: Injuries distribution on the body of victim

Sr. No.

Injuries

No of Victims

1

Face

35 (13.30%)

2

Head & Neck

37

14.06%

 

3

Chest & Abdomen

27

10.26%

 

4

Back

57

21.67%

 

5

Upper & Lower limbs

31

11.78%

 

6

Genital area & Genital tract

76

28.89%

 

Total

 

263 (100%)

There was maximum incidence of injuries of genital area & genital tract 76(28.89%) and minimum incidence of injuries chest & abdomen 27(10.26%) as shown in table 5.

DISCUSSION

In our examination, the age bunch generally inclined to a rape was age group 26-30years 37(16.15%) while the casualties went in age from six years to forty years old. This is in accordance with concentrates in Bangladesh15, and is like that detailed in some European countries.2,4,6,16 However concentrates in Canada11 and Nairobi9 demonstrated nineteen-multiyear age section generally inclined to a rape. The previous time o1 inclination in our examination could be because of the way this is the age at which women in our general public are less mindful and obliviousness of the impulses of community. As they develop, they will in general be progressively defensive of outsiders and associates the same. It is a result o1 this reality that no lady more than forty years old was accounted for to have been attacked explicitly in our investigation. There is a need to instruct women arriving at pubescence. Social restrictions making moms or other old women in the background reluctant to talk about the way toward developing into mature ought to be disheartened. Women who need to go out autonomously or may some way or another experience such a circumstance ought to be made mindful of the alert signs characteristic of such an approaching circumstance and how they ought to react so as to ensure themselves.

The late detailing in this investigation is presumably because of the dynamic procedure in our general public. Such an episode is taken as a blow on the background respect. The grievous casually first sets aside some effort to talk about it with her mom or other senior women. Further hesitance and thought goes into the episode before it is brought to the notification of the male of the house and here again delay happens in dynamic as revealing the occurrence adds up to making it open and an affront to the background.

Clear rules ought to be created for casualty and background reaction to such a circumstance as early revealing improves the probability of acquiring clinical proof for sentencing the attacker. Moreover, components ought to be set up for assurance of the security/personality of the plaintiff and the background and undue exposure ought to be dodged. By and large it has been seen that clinical assessments are done after a postponement of days as well as weeks bringing about loss of significant proof. It has been accounted for that ninety percent cases with positive legal proof were seen inside twenty-four hours o1 their attack.8

The casualty had changed garments worn at the hour o1 the episode and had washed be1ore the clinical assessment in eighty-three percent of the cases, in this manner bringing about loss of significant proof. This is carefully about in the way that in just three out of one hundred twenty-three cases were fundamental stains found on the garments. This was normal in the conditions where about eighty-eight percent of the casualties revealed 1or clinical assessment following forty-eight hours of the episode. This is enhanced by discoveries in United States of America that of all the legal proof gathered, sixty-four percent was found on the garments and cloth. Following twenty-four hours practically all positive proof is recouped from the garments or sheet.8

Bodily wounds were available on the body in There was maximum incidence of injuries of genital area & genital tract 76(28.89%) and minimum incidence of injuries chest & abdomen 27(10.26%) cases. Indications of ongoing injury to the genital region were available in just 76(28.89%) cases. This was not out of the ordinary as the greater part o1 the cases introduced for assessment after over seventy-two hours. The discoveries o1 wounds on the body and the genitalia are reliable with discoveries in Dhaka where thirteen point four eight percent of the casualties had proof of not related to private parts brutality and ten percent had indications of late injury to the private parts.15 In concentrates from progressively created nations private parts wound is accounted for in a bigger extent (twenty two to fifty three percent) of the cases examined as is not related to private parts wound.17,18 This could be clarified by the early detailing o1 the cases in these nations contrasted with Pakistan and Bangladesh.

An absorbent pad was taken for the nearness of seminal fluid in There was 173(65.77%) victims who had swab positive and 90(34.22%) swab negative cases. Semen was identified in 173(65.77%) cases. while it was negative in 90(34.22%) cases. This is a sudden 1inding as the likelihood of recognizing semen diminishes as the stretch between the ambush and clinical assessment increments and it is commonly acknowledged that recognition of complete sperms gets troublesome following twenty six hours and sperm heads after five days.19 Chemical tests like corrosive phosphatase test and seminal fluid explicit glycoprotein (P30) might be certain for twenty four & forty eight  hours respectively.20 False constructive tests could bring about conviction of honest individuals. No seminal fluid gathering or Deoxy Ribo Nuclic Acid investigation was done as such offices were not accessible at that point. The unimportant discovery of seminal fluid is of little worth particularly in wedded women and even in unmarried casualties it is essential to build up a reason impact relationship by doing Deoxy Ribo Nuclic Acid investigation of the sperms and coordinating them with that o1 the suspects.

CONCLUSION

Women reaching the at risk age should be educated regarding the signal warning of danger for such a prevalence and how best to respond to such a situation. Survivors and the closely associated people should be educated to rep on such an incident immediately and get the victim examined so that proper evidence can take place and evidence collected. Facilities for seminal fluid grouping and Deoxy Ribo Nuclic Acid analysis should be developed to help in identifying the illegal. Finally, special centers should be developed where all needs of the survivors can be catered to staring from police reporting to medico-legal examination and continuing to medical and psychiatric treatment. This would prevent further causing injury the already injured survivors and the background; something that they have to undergo in taking help from the system in its current form.

Author’s Contribution:

Concept & Design of Study:

M Ijaz

Drafting:

M Asif,
Tanveer Hussain

Data Analysis:

Azhar Masud Bhatti, Abdul Hamid

Revisiting Critically:

M Ijaz, Abdul Hamid, Azhar Masud Bhatti,

Final Approval of version:

M Ijaz

Conflict of Interest: The study has no conflict of interest to declare by any author.

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